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Corneal Diseases: Types, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Corneal Diseases: Types, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment

August 9, 2019

Introduction

The cornea is an important part of the eye and assists in vision. Various corneal diseases lead to cloudy or blurred vision. If these diseases are not managed well in time, the risk of vision loss is significantly increased.

What Are The Different Types Of Corneal Diseases?

  • Keratoconus: It is a progressive disease. In this disease, the cornea becomes thin and develops into a cone-like structure. When you look for keratoconus treatment in India, you should consult with the best eye specialist in your area.
  • Fuchs’ Dystrophy: In this disease, the vision of eyes gets continuously worse over time. It usually affects both the eyes.
  • Lattice Dystrophy: In lattice dystrophy, a lattice-like spot of deposits occurs in the stroma layer which is located in the cornea.
  • Map-­Dot­-Fingerprint Dystrophy: It is also known as epithelial basement dystrophy. In this disease, basement membrane abnormally develops and cause gray spots in concentric lines of the central cornea. That looks like small fingerprints.
  • Ocular Herpes: It is a type of viral infection which is caused due to the herpes simplex virus. The herpes virus spread and cause inflammation in the cornea.
  • Iridocorneal Endothelial Syndrome (ICE): This disease usually occurs in one eye which develops due to the movement of endothelial cell form cornea to iris. As the cornea loses its cells, the patient experiences corneal swelling. The condition also leads to glaucoma.
  • Cornea damage: This condition is caused due to any disease, infection, and injury to eyes. Corneal damage leads to blurred vision.

What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Corneal Disorders?

  • Blurred and cloudy vision: Patient may experience blurred, cloudy and reduced vision due to corneal disease.
  • Pain in eyes: Pain in eyes is caused due to inflamed and injured corneal tissue.
  • Epiphora: It is also known as watery eyes. In this condition, the tear duct which is located above each eyeball, become blocked due to an infection and the production of tears increases.
  • Photophobia: In this condition, the eyes become sensitive to light. Photophobia may be caused due to a viral infection such as ocular herpes and other conditions such as headache and migraine.
  • Redness and inflammation in the eye: corneal disease may lead to redness and inflammation of eyes.

What Are The Main Causes Of Corneal Diseases?

  • Infection: Some corneal diseases are developed due to viral and bacterial infections. Infection in the eye leads to a corneal ulcer.
  • Trauma: Eye trauma is caused by a sudden hit with a blunt force in the eye. In some condition, blood gets collected in eyes leading to corneal disorder.
  • Autoimmune disorder: Autoimmune disorder such as lupus and Psoriasis, reduces the secretion of tears and cause dryness in the cornea.
  • Nutritional deficiency: Nutritional deficiency such as deficiency of vitamin A and vitamin D causes dryness in the cornea, vision loss, and corneal ulcers.
  • Allergy: The eye allergy is caused due to dust, mold and pet dander which results in watery eyes, pain and inflammation, and photophobia.

How Corneal Diseases Are Diagnosed?

  • Topography: Topography is also known as photokeratoscopy and videokeratography. It is a non-invasive medical imaging process. This technique is used for mapping the surface curvature of the cornea in the eye and outer shape of the eye.
  • Keratometry: Keratometry is also known as ophthalmometry. It is a type of diagnostic instrument which is used for evaluating the internal surface of the cornea.
  • Pachymetry: This technique is performed for the measurement of corneal thickness. This process is done when inflammation occurs in the cornea.
  • Specialized microscopy: Specialized microscopy is used for determination of infectious agent in the eye. This test also provides the health status of the endothelial cell.

What Are The Treatment Options Available For Corneal Disease?

  • Corneal transplantation: It is a widely used technique for the treatment of corneal disease and vision loss. In this technique, the surgeon replaces cornea with corneal tissue from a donor. Cornea transplant helps to restore the vision.
  • Laser surgery: It is also known as Phototherapeutic keratectomy. It is a surgical process which is performed with UV lights and laser technology. This technique is used for reshaping and restoring the cornea and also used in the treatment of some disease such as map dot fingerprint and basal membrane dystrophy.
  • Medications: Doctors will prescribe some medications such as antibiotics, antiviral drugs to treat corneal infections.
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